Facultative Hungarian language education in Romania

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Facultative Hungarian language education in Romania


Conduction period: February – November 2018

Goal of the research

The essence of facultative Hungarian language education is that Hungarian students attending Romanian medium schools for one reason or another, are presented with the opportunity to learn Hungarian language. On request, and if there are enough persons attending, Hungarian children can learn Hungarian language or Hungarian literature and language on a weekly basis.

The goal of the research to map the places where facultative Hungarian language education occurs, and what is its relation to the Hungarian educational system. Furthermore, it analyzes the institutional conditions and discourses surrounding it.

The study focuses on three interrelated dimensions:

  • public policy framework – legal background of the facultative Hungarian language education, and its effects on educational policy
  • institutional conditions – conditions influencing its development at local and classroom level
  • discursive strategies –the dominant discourses influencing language practices on local and classroom level

Research topics

The research takes an educational policy standpoint, focusing on the following questions:

  • To what extend can this type of education can be considered useful and how does it help the maintenance of Hungarian education?
  • How can we describe the relationship between facultative Hungarian language education and the vitality of the Hungarian education system?
  • Can the social and demographic characteristics of students attending facultative Hungarian language education be described?

The complete text can be downloaded HERE.

Publications, presentations and press releases until now on this topic



  • 2nd International Conference on Bilingualism, Valletta 2019: Just a simple case of language teaching? Facultative Hungarian language classes in Romania at the interplay of competing language ideologies (Keszeg Erika, Toró Tibor)
  • A nyelv közösségi perspektívája IV. Nemzetközi tudományos konferencia, Nagyvárad 2019: A fakultatív magyar nyelvoktatás helyzete Romániában (Keszeg Erika, Toró Tibor)
  • Társadalomtudományi kutatások az oktatás szolgálatában? Oktatási konferencia, Szováta 2020: Magyar nyelvoktatás a magyar intézményrendszeren túl. Programjavaslatok a fakultatív nyelvoktatás javítására Erdélyben (Keszeg Erika)
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