Bilingualism, language rights and linguistic assertiveness in three major cities in Transylvania

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Conduction period: march 2019 –

Romania has an interesting linguistic regime, since it develops an asymmetrical relationship between majority and minority languages. Dominant language ideologies and the legal framework defines the majority Romanian language as the normal communicational vessel, while the official use of minority languages are rather the exception and not the norm. These exceptions are regulated by minority language rights covering various fields (education, public administration, health care, justice etc.). Although since the mid-90ies we are witnessing a shift in language policy from a hegemonic language policy to a more permissive one, the implementation of language rights is still problematic in many fields.

The goal of the research is to map linguistic vitality, language use, bilingualism and the attitude of Hungarian population towards using Romanian in three major cities in Transylvania (Odorheiu Secuiesc/Székelyudvarhely, Oradea/Nagyvárad and Satu Mare/Szatmárnémeti).

The research design is as follows:

  • representative quantitative research based on questionnaires
  • focus-group discussions targeting Hungarian entrepreneurs and persons living in mixed marriages in each city

Publications, presentations and press releases on this topic


  • Research report – the complete text can be downloaded HERE.

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